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Blog - Studies added to in October 2020

Published: 02-10-2020

The database is updated daily from a structured search of PubMed for studies reporting patient-reported outcomes, costs and resource use, economic evaluations and mortality rates and trends. In this blog, we summarise some of the key papers that are being added throughout October 2020.


Studies reporting utilities

  • Mean utilities were 0.115 in patients with spinal muscular atrophy and 0.708 in their caregivers in Australia; mean total costs were $143,705 USD PPP, 56% direct costs with $63,145 mean indirect costs. Chambers 2020 Go to paper on PubMed
  • Mapping algorithms were developed to estimate EQ-5D utilities from the WHOQOL-HIV Bref in people with HIV infection in Brazil. Castro 2020 Go to paper on PubMed
  • A systematic review of utilities in schizophrenia found mean values of 0.79 for mild, 0.69 for moderate and 0.34 for severe health states. Aceituno 2020 Go to paper on PubMed
  • The SF-36 and SF-6D were validated in older people with frailty in the UK and showed less ceiling effect than the EQ-5D. Nikolova 2020 Go to paper on PubMed
  • Different mapping algorithms between EORTC QLQ-C30 and EQ-5D led to utilities ranging between 0.81 and 0.87 and altered ICERs by up to €10,140 in cost-effectiveness analyses of interventions for metastatic colorectal cancer in the Netherlands. Franken 2020 Go to paper on PubMed
  • Utility values for nasal deformity among adults in Saudi Arabia were 0.77 with VAS, 0.87 with time trade-off and 0.91 on standard gamble. Aldihan 2019 Go to paper on PubMed

Studies validating a PRO instrument

  • A 5-question Frailty short interview did not correlate highly with a frailty index but did predict likelihood of influenza vaccination in hospitalised adults with acute respiratory illness in the USA. Petrie 2019 Go to paper on PubMed
  • A systematic review concluded that there were few studies assessing the cross-cultural validity of he Health Assessment Questionnaire (HAQ) and the  Patient-Reported Outcomes Measurement Information System (PROMIS) functional status assessment measures (FSAMs) in rheumatoid arthritis. Kulhawy-Wibe 2020 Go to paper on PubMed
  • The Numerical Pain Rating Scale (NPRS), Oswestry Disability Index (ODI) and Roland Morris Disability Questionnaire (RMDQ) were validated in patients with lumbar disc herniation in China; the Japanese Orthopedic Association Back Pain Evaluation Questionnaire (JOABPEQ) was a better measure of quality of life than the SF-36. Yao 2020 Go to paper on PubMed
  • The Pediatric Self-Report Patient-Reported Outcomes Measurement Information System (PROMIS) was validated in children with Legg-Calvé-Perthes disease in the USA. Matsumoto 2020 Go to paper on PubMed
  • A 3-item self-reported measure of adherence had high specificity but low sensitivity compared with dispensing data in patients with  cardiometabolic disease in the USA. Lauffenburger 2020 Go to paper on PubMed
  • A scoping review concluded that no PRO tool exists to measure initiation, implementation and persistence with asthma inhaled maintenance medication. Gagne 2020 Go to paper on PubMed
  • The Scales Measuring the Impact of Dementia on Carers-D (SIDECAR-D) instrument was validated against the EQ-5D and population norms generated in the UK general population. Webb 2020 Go to paper on PubMed
  • Thresholds for clinical importance were established for the EORTC QLQ-C30 from patients with cancers in six European countries. Giesinger 2020 Go to paper on PubMed
  • The Patient-Reported Outcomes Measurement Information System (PROMIS PF CAT) was validated against the SF-36 and ED-5D in people with articular cartilage defects of the knee in the USA. Shamrock 2020 Go to paper on PubMed
  • The measurement properties of the Musculoskeletal Health Questionnaire (MSK-HQ) were compared in patients from Denmark and the UK receiving physiotherapy for musculoskeletal pain. Christiansen 2020 Go to paper on PubMed
  • The SF-36, the lymphedema-specific Freiburg Quality of Life Assessment for lymphatic disorders (FLQA-lk), knee-specific Knee Outcome Survey Activities of Daily Living Scale (KOS-ADL), Symptom Checklist-90-revised (SCL-90R), and the Six-Minute Walk Test (6 MWT) were compared in patients with lymphoedema and lipoedema of the lower extremity in Switzerland. Angst 2020 Go to paper on PubMed
  • The Functional Assessment of Cancer Therapy/Gynecologic Oncology Group-Neurotoxicity (FACT/GOG-Ntx) subscale was validated against the European Organization for Research and Treatment of Cancer Quality of Life Questionnaire Chemotherapy-Induced Peripheral Neuropathy Scale 20 (EORTC QLQ-CIPN20) in patients with chemotherapy-induced peripheral neuropathy (CIPN). Cheng 2020 Go to paper on PubMed

Other PRO studies

  • Adjuvant chemotherapy and/or radiotherapy resulted in worse EORTC QLQ-C30 scores than surgery alone in survivors of endometrial cancer in Thailand. Sivapornpan 2020 Go to paper on PubMed
  • Depression, measured on the Beck Depression Inventory (BDI II) was present in 32.6% of patients with Parkinson's disease in Spain and anxiety, assessed by the State-Trait Anxiety Inventory (STAI) in 68.4%. Chuquilin-Arista 2020 Go to paper on PubMed
  • Biofeedback training improved depression and resilience in abused psychiatric nurses in Taiwan compared with controls; the intervention was effectively delivered by smartphone app and also reduced occupational stress. Hsieh 2020 Go to paper on PubMed

Studies reporting costs and resource use

  • A systematic review of reviews found that dose simplification, patient education, electronic reminders to patients, and reduced patient cost sharing or incentives most consistently improved adherence to medication for diabetes, cardiovascular disease and cognition disorders. Anderson 2020 Go to paper on PubMed
  • Cancellation of elective surgery due to winter pressures in the UK resulted in a mean 5 working days lost for the 62% of patients able to return to work and 5 days per caregiver for 33% of patients. Herrod 2019 Go to paper on PubMed
  • A digital platform for disease information and physiotherapy costs 25% of the existing face-to-face management of people with hip or knee osteoarthritis in Sweden. Ekman 2020 Go to paper on PubMed
  • The overall reduction in ED admissions in Italy was 37.6% during the COVID-19 pandemic in 2020 compared with 2019; admissions for oncology did not decrease and hospitalisation rate from ED increased to 42.9% compared with <28% in previous years. Ojetti 2020 Go to paper on PubMed
  • Mean unit costs of GP consultations in Austria ranged from €15.6 to €42.6 depending on the costing approach. Mayer 2020 Go to paper on PubMed
  • Population-adjusted costs of medication for hepatitis C antivirals in 2014 to 2018 were $1 million/ 100,000 population in the USA and $0.4 million/100,000 in Canada, despite similar prevalence. Shakeri 2020 Go to paper on PubMed
  • Rates of lower extremity amputation varied across Europe, the USA and Australia between 1990 and 2017 and did not reflect changes in peripheral arterial disease. Hughes 2020 Go to paper on PubMed
  • Excess costs from 1 year before diagnosis to 3 years after diagnosis were $51,900 per patient with lung cancer in Australia in 2006 to 2013; lower costs were associated with shorter survival, including older age, smoking. Goldsbury 2020 Go to paper on PubMed
  • Black patients with gunshot wounds in the USA had similar length of stay and complications compared with other ethnic groups but incurred higher hospitalisation costs and had lower in-hospital mortality. Peluso 2020 Go to paper on PubMed
  • A systematic review found that 1-year mean medication possession ratio for oral therapies for multiple sclerosis was 83.3%, 71.8% of patients had 80% or more days covered and 1-year discontinuation rate was 25.4%. Nicholas 2020 Go to paper on PubMed
  • A systematic review found that the total costs of treatment for Alzheimer's disease were $14,675 for mild dementia, $19,975 for moderate dementia and $29,708 for severe dementia per patient per year. Maresova 2019 Go to paper on PubMed
  • Early supported discharge with intensive rehabilitation after stroke reduced hospital admission length but overall costs were similar to usual care in Australia. Neale 2020 Go to paper on PubMed
  • The administration of CAR T-cell therapy in nonacademic specialty oncology networks for relapsed or refractory large B-cell lymphoma in the USA was associated with a $29?834 (55.9%) decrease in hospitalisation and office visit costs and a $3154 (20.1%) decrease in procedure costs. Lyman 2020 Go to paper on PubMed
  • The cost of cancer in Europe in 2018 was estimated to be €199 billion, ranging from €160 per capita in Romania to €578 in Switzerland; healthcare costs were €103 billion, €26 billion was for informal care and €70 billion productivity losses. Hofmarcher 2020 Go to paper on PubMed

Economic evaluations

  • Vaccinating pregnant women in South Africa for influenza is cost-effective when those who were HIV-positive were prioritised, with an ICER of US$4689/QALY; vaccinating all pregnant women had an ICER of $5924/QALY, above the $5724 per capita GDP. Biggerstaff 2019 Go to paper on PubMed
  • Global eradication of hepatitis C by 2030 would prevent 2.1 million deaths at a cost of $885/DALY averted and a net societal economic benefit of $22.7 billion. Scott 2020 Go to paper on PubMed
  • Glecaprevir/pibrentasvir is cost-effective compared with existing direct-acting antivirals in chronic hepatitis C in Japan, with lower lifetime costs and higher QALYs than sofosbuvir combinations. Kawaguchi 2020 Go to paper on PubMed
  • Brivaracetam is cost-effective compared with perampanel for focal onset seizures in adolescents and adults in Finland, with an ICER of €5345/QALY gained. Vaatainen 2020 Go to paper on PubMed
  • A systematic review concluded that 66% of economic evaluations of ipilimumab, nivolumab or pembrolizumab showed they were cost-effective in melanoma, lung cancer, head and neck cancer or renal cell carcinoma. Couchard 2020 Go to paper on PubMed
  • Quadrivalent influenza vaccination of children in Brazil is cost-effective, with an ICER of R$49,700 per life-year saved and R$26,800/QALY compared with trivalent vaccines. Crepay 2020 Go to paper on PubMed
  • All direct-acting antivirals were cost-saving and increased QALYs compared with pegylated-interferon plus ribavirin in chronic hepatitis C in Vietnam, sofosbuvir/velpatasvir was the most cost-saving regimen. Due 2020 Go to paper on PubMed
  • OnabotulinumtoxinA is cost-effective for patients with increasing monthly migraine headaches, with an ICER of €18,506 in Sweden and €19,954 in Norway compared with placebo. Hansson-Hedblom 2020 Go to paper on PubMed
  • Protecting healthcare workers in low- and middle-income countries against COVID-19 would cost $9.6 billion USD but would have a societal return on investment of $755.3 billion USD, a 7,932% return. Risko 2020 Go to paper on PubMed

Studies reporting mortality rates and trends

  • 29.9% of neonates referred to a tertiary care centre in India in 2016 died, 63% within 24 hours of birth; prematurity/VLBW, birth asphyxia, hypothermia and shock were the main predictors of mortality. Singh 2020 Go to paper on PubMed
  • In the US, closing primary and secondary schools was associated with a 62% reduction in incidence of COVID-19 and a 58% reduction in mortality, with  a greater benefit in states with lower cumulative COVID-19 incidence at time of school closure. Auger 2020 Go to paper on PubMed
  • Adjusted mortality odds ratios were 3.51 (95%CI 3.16 to 3.90) for people with type 1 diabetes and 2.03 (1.97 to 2.09) for type 2 diabetes compared with no diabetes in patients hospitalised for COVID-19 in the UK. Barron 2020 Go to paper on PubMed
  • An RCT found that daily dexamethasone for 10 days reduced mortality by 15.3% and increased ventilator-free days by a mean 4.8 days compared with usual care  in patients being ventilated for acute respiratory distress syndrome in Spain in 2013 to 2018. Villar 2020 Go to paper on PubMed
  • Institutional delivery decreased by 52.4% in Nepal during COVID-19 lockdown compared with before lockdown; institutional stillbirth rate increased from 14/1000 births before to 21/1000 during lockdown and institutional neonatal mortality increased from 13 to 40/1000 live births. Kc 2020 Go to paper on PubMed
  • Mortality in bladder cancer is increased when patients have had  a previous cancer (HR 1.37, 95%CI 1.32 to 1.42); a nomogram predicts 1-, 3- and 5-year survival. Wang 2020 Go to paper on PubMed
  • The number of patients undergoing cardiac surgery in Israel fell during the COVID-19 pandemic compared with the previous year but hospital mortality was 13% compared with 5.2% in 2019. Keizman 2020 Go to paper on PubMed
  • Mortality was 31% among patients admitted to ITU between March and May 2020 with COVID-19 in Spain. Ferrando 2020 Go to paper on PubMed
  • In-hospital mortality from COVID-19 in the USA was 48.6% in patients with a history of stroke and 31.7% for those with no prior stroke; increased risk was significant on multivariate analysis. Kummer 2020 Go to paper on PubMed 
  • A non-randomised study found lower risks of mortality and need for intubation in patients with COVID-19 treated with famotidine than those without famotidine. Mather 2020 Go to paper on PubMed
  • In the USA, patients who travelled further for surgery for cancer of the liver, pancreas, colon, rectum, larynx and melanoma had a lower mortality on multivariable regression analysis than those closer to the hospital. Gartska 2020 Go to paper on PubMed
  • Acute kidney injury occurred in 7% of adults hospitalised with COVID-19 in China; in-hospital mortality was 5-fold higher with AKI after adjusting for confounders, OR 5.12 (95% CI, 2.70 to 9.72). Cheng 2020 Go to paper on PubMed
  • Cardiac arrest occurred in 14% of critically-ill patients with COVID-19 in the USA; 57% of these had cardiopulmonary resuscitation, 7% of whom survived to hospital discharge with normal or mildly impaired neurological status. Hayek 2020 Go to paper on PubMed
  • COVID-19 affected 47% of residents in a French nursing home and spread to infect 24% of staff; case fatality rate was 27%, 41% of infected staff were asymptomatic. Sacco 2020 Go to paper on PubMed
  • A Cochrane review concluded that the evidence is still too weak to know whether convalescent plasma reduces symptoms or mortality in people with COVID-19. Chai 2020 Go to paper on PubMed
  • ICU admission rate for COVID-19 in Iceland in March to May 2020 was 7.4/100,000 population; hospital mortality was 15% for those admitted to ICU and 19% for those ventilated. Kristinsson 2020 Go to paper on PubMed
  • Of 49,973 confirmed cases of COVID-19 in Wuhan, China until March 2020, 5.0% died, 19.6% had severe or critical illness, 82% of deaths occurred in people aged over 60 years. Wang 2020 Go to paper on PubMed
  • A systematic review found that breast cancer patients with sarcopenia had a significantly higher risk of mortality, compared to breast cancer patients without sarcopenia (HR = 1.71, 95% CI: 1.25-2.33). Zhang 2020 Go to paper on PubMed