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Blog - PRO tools in bipolar disorder

Published: 29-12-2016

We used the database to develop an evidence map of PRO tools that have been used in studies of people with bipolar disorder, which took us approximately 5 hours. Here's what we found.

We searched the Dashboard for Disease Bipolar disorder, Study type PRO study, on 16th December 2016. We found a total of 127 abstracts that had been indexed in PubMed since 1960, which reported the use of 85 different PRO instruments.

Of these 85 instruments, 19 were specific for bipolar disorder, depression or mania, 45 were general instruments used to evaluate quality of life, functioning or utilities, nine assessed other conditions or diseases that were common comorbidities of people with bipolar disorder, including anxiety, eight assessed treatments or adherence, three evaluated the impact of the disease on work productivity and one assessed caregiver burden. The most frequently used tool was the SF-36, cited in 26 abstracts, followed by the Young Mania Rating Scale (18 abstracts), Q-LES-Q (17 abstracts), Hamilton Depression scale (15), MADRS (13) and SF-12 and WHOQOL-BREF (10 each).

The United States was the most common setting, with 56 abstracts, followed by the United Kingdom (8 abstracts), Canada and Italy (7 abstracts each), then Australia, Brazil and Spain (6 abstracts each). Drug interventions were assessed in 28 abstracts,and psychological interventions in 15.

The evidence maps showing the geographical locations where each tool has been used are reported below.

Number of abstracts citing each PRO instrument by geographical location: disease-specific tools


Number of abstracts citing each PRO instrument by geographical location: general tools


Number of abstracts citing each PRO instrument by geographical location: general tools (continued)

Number of abstracts citing each PRO instrument by geographical location: tools assessing comorbidities

Number of abstracts citing each PRO instrument by geographical location: other tools

The evidence map shows that a wide range of PRO tools have been used in studies of bipolar disorder, but only ten tools were cited in more than five abstracts each. Research into the quality of life in bipolar disorder has generally been assessed from a US perspective.



BAS: caregiver burden scale

BDQ: Brief Disability Questionnaire

BPRS: Brief Psychiatric Rating Scale

CGAS: Children's Global Assessment Scale

CGI-BP: Clinical Global Impression for Bipolar Disorder

CGI-S: Clinical Global Impressions-Severity of Illness

CHQ: Child Health Questionnaire

CIDI: Composite International Diagnostic Interview

CODS: Consequences of Depression Scale

CORE-OM: Clinical Outcomes in Routine Evaluation - Outcome Measure

CTD: Cognitive Test for Delirium

CUDOS: Clinically Useful Depression Outcome Scale

DAI-10, DAI-30: Drug Attitude Inventory

EWPS: Endicott Workplace Productivity Scale

FAST: Functioning Assessment Short Test

GAD-7: Generalised Anxiety Disorder Assessment

GAF: Global Assessment of Functioning

GAS: Global Assessment Scale

GHQ-12: General Health Questionnaire

HADS: Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale

HAM-A: Hamilton Anxiety Rating Scale

HAM-D: Hamilton Depression rating scale

HoNOS: Health of the Nation Outcome Scales

IDS-C30: Inventory of Depressive Symptomatology-Clinician-Rated

IIRS: Illness Intrusiveness Rating Scale

IPAQ: Impact on Participation and Autonomy questionnaire

ISS: Internal State Scale

IWQOL-Lite: Impact of Weight on Quality of Life-Lite

KINDL: Revised Children Quality of Life Questioinnaire

LIFE-RIFT: Longitudinal Interval Follow-up Evaluation-Range of Impaired Functioning Tool

LLE: List of Life Events

LSP: Life Skills Profile

MADRS: Montgomery Asberg Depression Rating Scale

MARS: Medication Adherence Rating Scale

MHI-17: Mental Health Index-17

MINI: Mini International Neuropsychiatric Interview

MMPI: Minnesota Multiphasic Personality Inventory

MSQ: Mood Swings Questionnaire

OCDS: Obsessive Compulsive Drinking Scale

OPQ: Occupational Performance Questionnaire

PANSS: Positive and Negative Syndrome Scale

PGWB: Psychological General Well-Being

PHQ-9: Patient Health Questionnaire

PREDIMED: Mediterranean diet questionnaire

PRISE: Patient Rated Inventory of Side Effects

PSQI: Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index

Q-LES-Q: Quality of Life Enjoyment and Satisfaction Questionnaire

QLDS: Quality of Life in Depression Scale

QLI: Lehman Brief Quality of Life Interview

QWB: Quality of Well-Being scale

SADS: Schedule for Affective Disorders and Schizophrenia

SBQOL: SmithKline Beecham Quality of Life

SCID: Structured Clinical Interview for DSM disorders

SMAQ: Simplified Medication Adherence Questionnaire

TooL: Tolerability and Quality of Life

UKU: Udvalg for Kliniske Undersogelser